Stem cells are administered in different ways, individually, depending on the disease and the physical condition of each patient. Patients usually receive several applications of stem cells throughout their treatment protocol.
Intravenous (IV): the safest and easiest method of injecting stem cells into the body. Anaesthesia is not required. IV administration usually takes about 1 hour, but the patient remains under observation for at least 4–5 hours after administration and is then discharged for home treatment.
Intra-articular (IA): stem cells are injected directly into the affected joint in the operating room, at the hip, under the control of an X-ray machine. This method is commonly used for arthritis. Intra-articular application is safe and does not require anaesthesia.
Local: stem cells are injected directly into the affected area. Depending on the application, a local anaesthetic is administered. If necessary, the application is carried out under general anaesthesia.
Intrathecal (IT): IT administration is ideal for neurological conditions as the stem cells are injected directly into the spinal canal. This allows the cells to access the spinal cord and brain. During the procedure, an experienced anaesthesiologist injects the stem cells into the spinal canal through the lower vertebrae under local anaesthesia. The injection is performed under sterile conditions in the operating room. Once inside the spinal cord, the stem cells can gain access to the spinal cord and the brain. The administration usually takes about 30 minutes. However, the patient remains under observation for at least 6 hours, ideally overnight.
In the form of a nasal spray: a special and customized solution containing stem cells is injected directly into the nostril.